Guthrie Genealogy

GENETIC GENEALOGY of GUTHRIE FAMILY GROUP 2A

Robert Guthrie & Agnes Gordon

GFG2A - BRANCH E - CLUSTER 5

Robert Guthrie

Son of Robert Guthrie & Bridget Dougherty

Birth: 1737

Birth Location: Ireland

Marriage: c 1759, exact year unknown

Occupation: farmer / carpenter

Death: January 1808

Death Location: Chartiers, Washington, Pennsylvania

Burial: Unknown Location, presumably in Washington County, Pennsylvania

Agnes Gordon

Daughter of James Gordon & (Unknown)

Birth: 1741

Birth Location: West Pennsboro, Cumberland, Pennsylvania

Sons: James, William, Robert, Joseph

Daughters: Martha, Mary, Jean, Elizabeth, Isabel

Death: 1808?

Death Location: Washington County, Pennsylvania (unconfirmed) 

Burial: Unknown Location, presumably in Washington County, Pennsylvania

HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS:

1737: BIRTH of ROBERT GUTHRIE, JUNIOR
Some online trees list Robert with a middle name: Wayne. No source information found. His birth date was published in the Dunn book, 'Records of the Guthrie Family' as communicated to by George Wilkins Guthrie, former Mayor of Pittsburgh, in a letter to a cousin, Mrs Lyster dated 29 June 1893:  "Their first son, Robert, was born in 1737." The family was living in Ireland. Robert Guthrie Sr had been born in the City of Derry, aka Londonderry, Ireland, and Bridget Dougherty was from neighboring Donegal, Ireland. The exact county of Robert Guthrie Jr's birth remains unknown.

1744: IMMIGRATION from IRELAND to AMERICA
The family made a 2-stage arrival in America.  Robert Guthrie, Sr, and son Robert Jr arrived first, sailing over in 1744. The following year Bridget, and son James, arrived. It is unknown why the family did not travel together. One can speculate that it had something to do with Robert & Bridget's daughter Jane being ill. The 3-year old died in 1744.

1744: RESIDENCE in PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
Guthrie-Lyster Letter of 1893: "They settled and lived three or four years in Philadelphia, and from there removed to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania."

1749: RESIDENCE in LANCASTER COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Robert Guthrie Jr's brother, John Guthrie, was born in Lancaster County, PA on 11 Jan 1749, indicating that the family had taken up residency there by that date.

1750: RESIDENCE in CARLISLE, CUMBERLAND COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Guthrie-Lyster Letter of 1893: "When John was a year old they moved to Carlisle, PA."

1755: COURT RECORDS
Could be Robert Guthrie Sr (age ~55) or Robert Guthrie Jr (age 18):
On 21 Apr 1755 Robert Guthery of Carlisle was indicted for assault & battery on Stephen Foulk the younger. 

1760: COURT RECORDS
Could be Robert Guthrie Sr (age ~56) or Robert Guthrie Jr (age 19):
1 Jan 1760. Robert Guthry of Carlisle was indicted for assault & battery on Mary Burns
22 Apr 1760. Robert Guthry of Carlisle, assault & battery on Margaret Kinslow. Wit: Mary Burns.
27 Aug 1760. Robert Guthry of Carlisle, assault & battery on  Edward Magirth
23 Nov 1760. Robert Guthry of Carlisle, yeoman, assault & battery on Elinor McGurk. Test: James Pollock.

1760: MARRIAGE of ROBERT GUTHRIE, JR and AGNES GORDON
Approximate date Robert Guthrie Jr married Agnes Gordon, daughter of James Gordon of West Pennsboro, Cumberland, County, PA. Their eldest child, James was born in December of 1760.

1760: BIRTH of SON, JAMES GUTHRIE
James Guthrie was born in Carlisle, Cumberland, Pennsylvania on 20 December 1760. He is the direct ancestor of our DNA Project participant Earl Emmet Guthrie. James moved to Cecil Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania during the 1780s. He married Sarah Dunlap. They had at least 3 sons and 3 daughters. Chartiers Township was formed in 1790 and the family lived there until 1830 when they emigrated, along with James' youngest brother Joseph & family, along the National Road to Ohio. James purchased a 1/4 section (160 acre) property on the Muskingum County side of Taylor Road, and Joseph purchased his 1/4 section (160 acre) property adjacent to his brother's, but on the Guersey County side of the road. James died on 3 Aug 1848. Sarah died on 18 Jan 1844. They are both buried in Bloomfield Cemetery in Highland, Muskingum, Ohio.

 
James Guthrie                                                  Sarah Guthrie
(1760-1848)                                                    (1765-1844)

1761: COURT RECORDS
1 Apr 1761. James Stackpole of Carlisle indicted for assault & battery on Robert Guthrey the younger. Stackpole was a neighbor of the Guthries, and this was the first documented event in what would apparently become an ongoing feud between the Guthries and Stackpole.

28 Apr 1761. James Stackpole was again indicted for assault & battery on Robert Guthrie the elder.

April Court 1761. Robert Guthrie Sr and Robert Guthrie Jr were among those ordered to pay fines of 2shillings, 6pence each for involvement in a riot.

July Court 1761. James Mitchell fined & ordered to observe peace esp toward Robert Guttery Jr. Next entry fines of 25 & 100pounds Robert Guttery Sr & Jr ordering them to observe peace toward James Mitchell.

1762: BIRTH of DAUGHTER, MARY GUTHRIE
Known as 'Polley', Mary Guthrie was born sometime in 1762. She married Thomas Dodds. According to his tombstone, Thomas was "born on the ocean", presumably when his family immigrated to America. He was a Revolutionary War Soldier. They lived in Renfrew, Butler, Pennsylvania, and are buried at White Oak Springs Presbyterian Cementery.


1762: COURT RECORDS
17 Mar 1762. Robert Guttery of Carlisle, assault & battery on Katherine Boyle. (Could be Robert Guthrie Sr, age 62, or Robert Guthrie Jr, age 25)
17 Mar 1762. Charles Boyle of Carlisle, assault & battery on Robert Guttery the younger.
6 & 7 April 1762. Moses Jefferies of Carlisle, assault & battery on Robert Guthrie the younger.
April Court 1762. The King v Robert Guttery. Assault & battery. Deft being charged plead guilty. Fined 5 shillings.

1762: TAX RECORDS of CUMBERLAND COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
"Robert Guthrie was a taxable in Carlisle, PA, Same year the son, 'Rob' Guthrie was a taxable in Westpennsboro Townsip. (Hist of Cumberland and Adams Counties, 1886, p.28)

1765: BIRTH of DAUGHTER, JEAN GUTHRIE
Jean was born about 1765. Her father's will listed his children only by their first names, so it is unknown if she was married. I presume that she was because the 1800 census listed only 1 female in the household. No further details.

1765: PROPERTY in WEST PENNSBORO TOWNSHIP, CUMBERLAND, PENNSYLVANIA
Robert Guthrie Jr "Acquired this land (226-1/4 acres) from the Penns; was taxed for it in 1768; taxed in Carlisle in 1769 and 1770; in West Pennsboro, 1778; Carlisle, 1780, 1781, 1782. (Pa Arch).

1765: COURT RECORDS
27 Dec 1765. Thomas Atkins of Carlisle, yeoman, assault & battery on Robert Guthry the younger.
27 Dec 1765. Samuel Finley of Carlisle, gentleman, assault & battery on Robert Guthery the younger.

1766: TAX RECORDS of CARLISLE, CUMBERLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, USA
Guthry, Robert Jr 2 lots.

1766: BIRTH of SON, WILLIAM GUTHRIE (Range 1766-1784)
Online trees list William's DOB as 1761, but that does not correspond to the 1810 census data that indicates he was 26-44 years of age at the time. William owned property in Chartiers. He was a schoolmaster. The 1800 Chartiers assessment roll indicates that there were 4 log school houses in the township and contains the names of William Guthrie, Samuel and Isaac Miller, George Munroe, William Tate and George Welsh, schoolmasters. In 1802, William sold a 100-acre tract of land to his brother Joseph Guthrie of Chartiers for 350 pounds lawful money. William apparently married. The 1810 census lists him in a household of: 1M 26-44, 1F 45+, 1F 16-25, 2F<10. No further details known.

1767: BIRTH of DAUGHTER, ELIZABETH GUTHRIE
This is possibly an estimate of her birth year. Elizabeth was listed in her father's will. No further details known.

1769: COURT RECORDS
14 Jun 1769. Oath by John Hastings that Robert Guthry Jr violently assaulted his gr-dau Jane Hastings, a minor, by dragging her by the arm to the door, and swearing profane oaths that he would beat her, that she was besmearched in her own blood, and linen shift ripped.

1769: BIRTH of DAUGHTER, MARTHA GUTHRIE
Possibly an estimated date of birth. Martha was listed in her father's will, but nothing further is known.

1771: PROPERTY PURCHASE in CARLISLE, CUMBERLAND, PENNSYLVANIA
David Hoge Esq late High Sheriff of Cumberland did grant the aforesaid lot (no.290 on the S. side of Pomfret Street) to Robert Guthrie the younger. {LRG Footnote 288, p.706}

1773: BIRTH of DAUGHTER, ISABEL GUTHRIE
Possibly an estimated date of birth. Isabel was listed in her father's will, but nothing further is known.

1775?: BIRTH of SON, ROBERT GUTHRIE
The records of Carlisle list him as Robert Guthrie Jr. If he is the man we think he is (direct ancestor of Guthrie Project Participant EJG) then his birth year would be 1767 as proven by tombstone records. However, the 1800 census of Chartiers lists Robert Guthrie's Household with 1M & 1F 16-25 (1775-1784). Was Robert placed in the wrong age category, or can we find some other evidence that will reveal his DOB?

In 1797, Robert Jr purchased land from his parents for 60 pounds, and was taxed for the property the following year. He married sometime before the 1800 census to a woman named Margaret. Possibly Margaret Willson.

In 1809, Robert Guthrie & Margaret his wife sold their portion of the family farm for $480. A witness to the sale was Thomas Wilson. This couple then disappears from the records of Cumberland County, PA.

The records we know to be associated with EJG's ancestor are those in Somerset Twp and West Bethlehem Twp, Washington County, PA. The Robert Guthrie of those locales appears in Somerset about the same time that Robert & Agnes (Gordon) Guthrie's son leaves Cumberland County. The 1828 will of Thomas Wilson of Somerset, Washington County, Pennsylvania gives us another clue. It mentions unnamed children of Robert Guthrie by his daughter Margaret, who was presumably deceased at the time. And indicates that his daughter Jane's husband was Joseph Guthrie. This refers to Joseph Guthrie, youngest son of Robert & Agnes. It makes a lot of sense that a pair of sisters might marry two brothers.

This information is complicated by the fact that Adam Guthrie & Mercy Irwin of Chester County, PA had a son, Robert, of the same approximate age as this man who married a woman named Margaret and was living in Washington County, Pennsylvania at the time of Adam's death. Combined with the fact that both lines are MD/PA Group DNA, and the questionable census age range, it leaves enough of a grey area to continue our search for answers.

The 1809 Deed:

 

1776: BIRTH of SON, JOSEPH GUTHRIE (Range 1771-1780)
Joseph Guthrie was the youngest of Robert & Agnes' children. He married twice. First to Jane Wilson, daughter of Thomas & Hannah Wilson. They had 10 children: 3 sons and 7 daughters. Joseph & Jane married about 1801 in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Joseph purchased a 100 acres property on the North Fork of Chartiers Creek from his brother William Guthrie in 1802. Joseph's family was enumerated in Mount Pleasant Township in 1810 and 1820. They sold their coal rights in a 2+ acre area to Joseph M.Clusky/McClusky on 3 Aug 1826, and then on 24 Feb 1827 sold him their North Chartiers Creek property. Joseph and his family, along with his older brother James' family, moved to Ohio by 1830. Joseph purchased 1/4 section (160 acre) on the Guernsey County side of the County Line, while James purchased 1/4 section (160 acres) on the Muskingum County side, both properties being adjacent along Taylor Road. Joseph's wife Jane died sometime between 1831-1840, and Joseph remarried to a woman named Mary "Polly". No issue from this second marriage. Joseph died between 1751-1760. We do not currently have a DNA Project participant from Joseph's direct line.

1779: PROPERTY SALE in CARLISLE, CUMBERLAND, PENNSYLVANIA
5 Feb 1779. Indenture between Robert Guthrie the Younger of Carlisle, Joiner, and Charles Sewell of Heidelburg Twp of the County of York, for 30 pounds, a lot in the town of Carlisle known as No. 274. This lot became the location of St. Patrick's Church.

This is the first official indication we have of Robert Guthrie Jr's occupation. He is listed as a "joiner" which is a wood worker or carpenter. This was also the profession of his father.

  

1779: PROPERTY SALE in FERMANAGH, CUMBERLAND, PENNSYLVANIA
3 Apr 1779. Robert Guthrie Jr of Carlisle, carpenter, for 93 pounds, 10 shillings, sells to Robert Nelson 212 acres, 22 perches in Fermanagh Twp (name extinct, now Franklin County). Wit incl John Guthrie. (Cumberland Deeds G-1, folio 93)

1780: COURT RECORDS
April Court 1780. Robert Guthry Jr, assault & battery on William Carhart of Carlise and vice versa. April & June 1780.

1781: FORMATION of WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

The County was formed during the Revolutionary War period on March 28, 1781 from part of Westmoreland County. It was the first County formed after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

 


This modern map of Washington County, Pennsylvania shows the various townships, although the borders have changes some since 1781.

1781: WASHINGTON COUNTY TAX LIST - CECIL TOWNSHIP
Robert Guthrie - 360 acres - 2 horses - 3 cattle - 4 sheep - 202 value.
James Guthrie - single freeman - 0 acres - 1 horse - 6 value. (This is Robert's eldest son.)

1783: WASHINGTON COUNTY TAX LIST - CECIL TOWNSHIP
Robert Guttery - 260 acres -2 horses - 3 cattle - 7 sheep - 135 value
James Gutthery - "single freeman" - 1 horse - Value 10

1784: WASHINGTON COUNTY TAX LIST - CECIL TOWNSHIP
The Tax List for Cecil Township includes Robert Guthrie, and James Guthrie, the latter being listed as a 'single freeman'.

1784: DEATH of FATHER-in-LAW, JAMES GORDON
The Last Will & Testament of James Gordon was proved on 16 Dec 1786 in West Pennsboro, Cumberland, Pennsylvania. Book E - Pages 4-5: Mentions Robert Gutery.

1785: PROPERTY (LAND WARRANT) in WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Robert Gutry received a land warrant for 366-1/2 acres of land originally part of Cecil Twp, which later fell into Mt. Pleasant Twp upon its formation in 1806. The property was later patented as "Waterford". Interestingly, it is directly adjacent to a huge tract of land belonging to George Washington.

1788: PATENT ISSUED for "WATERFORD"
A patent was issued for Robert Guthrie's tract called Waterford. Note that since Robert & Agnes now have a son of their own named Robert, the titles have changed for documents in Chartiers. Robert, son of Robert & Bridget, is now listed as Robert Guthrie Sr.

1790: FORMATION of CHARTIERS TOWNSHIP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Chartiers Township was erected by the Washington County Court of Quarter Session from the southern part of Cecil Township on March 23rd, 1790 with a petition from the inhabitants residing in its boundaries.

1790: CENSUS of WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Robert Guttery Household: 1M 16+, 2M < 16, 1 F

1793: PROPERTY SALE in CHARTIERS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
For the token sum of 5 shillings Robert & Agnes give to their son James 79 acres & 22 perches on Chartiers Creek, part of original patent of 366-1/2acres dated 1788. Recorded 8 Oct 1793.

1793: WASHINGTON COUNTY TAX LIST
List includes: Robert Guthrie, James Guthrie

1794: PROPERTY SALE in CHARTIERS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

Robert Guthrie to John Lindsey, land on Chartiers Creek, Recorded 17 June 1794. Book I Volume 1 Folio 795.

1795: PROPERTY SALE in CHARTIERS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
2 July 1795. Robert Guthrie & wife Agnes sell to Thomas Elliott a parcel of land acquired from William Adams Jr who originally had an agreement with Thomas Robinson. Guthrie acquired the land 25 Sep 1788 containing 59 acres.

1797: PROPERTY SALE in CHARTIERS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
31 March 1797. Robert Guthrie Sr and Agnes, his wife, of Chartiers Twp for 60 pounds sell to Robert Guthrie Jr of said twp 56 acres, 2 rood and 17 poles of land at the head waters of Chartiers Creek adj Thomas Elliott, James Guthrie & others.

 
1798: WASHINGTON COUNTY TAX LIST - CHARTIERS TOWNSHIP
Guthrey, Robert Sr -- A20 House & Lot 20x24 wood 1-1/2 stories 1 window 12 lights 1 acre 110.00 value. E50 --Tract 119 acres 600.00 value.
 
1800: CENSUS of CHARTIERS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
ROBERT GUTHRIE HOUSEHOLD: 1M & 1F 45+ (<1756), 2M 16-25 (1775-1784)

1801: LAST WILL & TESTAMENT OF ROBERT GUTHRIE
Will of Robert Guthrie - Chartiers Twp - Dated: 1 Sep 1801 - Probated 12 Jan 1808 - Exec: Agness Guthrie; William Guthrie - Bene: Wife Agness, sons: Robert, Joseph, William, James; daus: Jean, Mary, Elizabeth, Martha, Isabel.

 
1802: PROPERTY SALE in CANONSBURG, CHARTIERS TWP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
Robert Guthery & Agnes his wife sell to John McMillan, a House & Lot No 59 in Canonsburgh. 1/2 of the lot orig sold to RG by James Kerr 17 Feb 1796. Other 1/2 by John Donnel & wife Jennet 7 Nov 1799.
 
1808: DEATH of ROBERT GUTHRIE
The exact date of his death his unknown. His Last Will & Testament, written on 5 April 1802, was probated on 12 January 1808.
 
1808: DEATH of AGNES GORDON GUTHRIE ?
Online trees also list 1808 as the year of Agnes' death, but I haven't found any evidence of that so far.

1809: ESTATE ADMINISTRATION for ROBERT GUTHRIE
Estate of Robert Guthrie; Acct/How Acting: William Guthrie, Executor; File G, No.19, Year: 1809.

 

Clues Connecting the Lineages of Participant EEG to Branch E:

Robert Guthrie Jr & Agnes Gordon

Robert Guthrie Jr (c1737-1808) was born in Ireland and came to America with his father about a year before his mother and younger brother James arrived. He lived in Carlisle, Cumberland, Pennsylvania, and married there to Agnes Gordon, the daughter of James Gordon. The latter was living in West Pennsborough, Cumberland, PA at the time he named Robert Guthrie in his 1784 will. This couple moved to Chartiers, Washington, Pennsylvania prior to 1790 when they are enumerated in the census. Like his father before him, Robert was a cabinetmaker & carpenter. Robert's will, written in 1801 and probated in 1808 in Chartiers, Washington, Pennsylvania, names his wife Agnes, sons: Robert, Joseph, William & James, and daughters: Jean, Mary, Martha, Elizabeth & Isabel.

Robert & Agnes Guthrie's son James was the missing link between the proven parts of Branch E's family tree and this Guthrie family.

Follow the Chain of Evidence:

The records of Carlisle and Chartiers map out the life of James Guthrie, son of R&A, up until the 1820 census when he seems to disappear from the records. A narrow trail of evidence has been found to link this man to James Guthrie (1760-1848) of Highland, Muskingum, Ohio.

Birth: 20 Dec 1760. 
The known date of birth for James Guthrie of Highland is 20 Dec 1760. According to census records, Robert & Agnes' son James was born 1756-1765. He fits the right age range.

Birth Location: PA
In the year 1760, Robert Guthrie & Agnes Gordon were living in Carlisle, Cumberland, Pennsylvania, as evidenced by several court cases which place them living there. If James Guthrie of Highland, Muskingum, OH is the same man, it would mean his birth location was specifically in Carlisle, Cumberland, PA. Census records do indicate that his birth was in PA.

Residence: Washington County, PA
Family history for James Guthrie & Sarah Dunlap indicates that they were from PA. They were living in Canonsburg, Washington, PA in 1824 when their daughter Sarah was married in her father's Canonsburg house. Robert & Agnes also owned property in Canonsburg. They sold some Chartiers property to their son James & he later sold some Chartiers property. (Grantor/Grantee Deed Indexes). There is no indication in the records that there were 2 men by the name of James Guthries living there at the same time.

Family: A brother named Joseph with a wife named Polly
James of Highland, Muskingum, OH was supposed to have moved to PA about the same time as his brother Joseph, who had a wife named Polly.
R&A did have a son named Joseph, their youngest, whose 1st wife was Jane Wilson, but whose 2nd wife, documented in the OH census records was named Mary, very likely nicknamed Polly. Joseph actually ended up in Guernsey, OH rather than Muskingum, but...

Family: Also living in Muskingum County
R&A's son Joseph had a daughter named Nancy who is documented as marrying Robert Thompson. They are listed in Highland, Muskingum, OH in the 1840-1860 census.

Family: The In-Laws
Two of Joseph's sons, William & Thomas, married daughters of Robert Guthrie & Margaret Wilson (Confirmed MD/PA Match). Could this be because their Guthries and our Guthries were all related on one extended family tree? Or could it be the Wilson connection? Joseph's 1st wife and Robert's wife were both Wilsons.

Census Records: Washington, PA & Muskingum, OH
James disappears from Chartiers, Washington, PA almost at the same time he reappears in Highland, Muskingum, OH. There is only 1 census period that I have not been able to pin him down. During the 1830 census he is not documented in either location. He is probably somewhere in between.

Property Records: Muskingum & Guernsey, OH
"James Guthrie acquired a 1/4 section (160 acres) in the east part of Muskingum County in section 11 located on Taylor Road and on the County Line. Joseph Guthrie also acquired a 1/4 section (160 acres) located on the west side of Adams Township on the Guernsey County line opposite his brother's farm." {Research by JH}

These property documents seal the family connection between James & Joseph Guthrie.

Death: Muskingum, OH
There is no death information listed for the son of R&A to conflict with what we know of James Guthrie of Muskingum County, OH. He died 12 Oct 1846, two years after his wife Sarah. They are both buried in Bloomfield Cemetery in Highland, Muskingum, OH. 

James left a will naming John Guthrie as one of his sons. There was only one man named John Guthrie listed in the census records of Highland, Muskingum, Ohio. John's family was enumerated there in 1840 & 1850. The 1850 census reveal the names of his wife, Lily, and his youngest children.

James Guthrie (1760 & 1848) & Sarah Dunlap (1765-1844)

Children:

(Unknown Daughter) Guthrie b. 1791-1800

John Guthrie b. 1792, d. after 1860., m. Lillian 'Lilly' A. Paxton, 5 sons

Robert Guthrie b. 1791-1794, d. before 1846, m. unkn, 3 sons, 1 daughter

James Guthrie b. 1795-1800, d. 1842, m. Julia Ann McKibben, 1 son, 4 daughters

Margaret Guthrie b. 1798, d. 1846, never married 

Sarah Guthrie b. 1800, d. 1885, m. James Barnett, 2 sons, 5 daughters

Guthrie Genealogy has learned from a its member, Kathryn (Paxton) Smith, that John's wife was Lillian A Paxton, the daughter of Andrew Paxton & Lillian Cochran. This family lived in Franklin County, PA before moving to Washington County, PA. John & Lily married and began their family there before moving to Highland, Muskingum County, Ohio. The very obvious naming patterns help to make the connection between John & Lily and their son, Andrew Paxton Guthrie, who had already been clearly identified by descendants as their ancestor. 

GENETIC EVIDENCE (DNA):

Participant EEG is a 109/111 match with Participant EJG. They also share a Pattern Marker at DYS534. This Pattern Marker is also found in Participant 214109, a descendant of Laurence Rawlin Guthrie, who claims his ancestral line leads back to Robert & Bridget (Doughtery) Guthrie. The combination of the Paper Trails and the DNA Tests provides enough evidence to conclusively prove the familial connection.

 

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